A day after Ehud Olmert formally submitted his resignation as prime minister, Israeli President Shimon Peres officially tapped his Kadima Party successor, Tzipi Livni, to form a new government.
Livni now has 42 days to put together a coalition government. Though Olmert still heads the interim government until Livni is sworn in, Sundayâ€™s resignation effectively spelled the end of the Olmert era.
Before meeting with Peres on Sunday evening, Olmert informed his Cabinet of his intention to resign.
“I must say that this was not an easy or simple decision,â€ Olmert said. â€œI think that I have acted properly and responsibly, as I promised the Israeli public from the beginning.”
Olmert congratulated Livni and said he would help her form a coalition government, and the two shook hands.
It was an ignominious end to a premiership marked by multiple corruption scandals, a failed war in Lebanon and unfinished business on the Palestinian, Syrian and Iranian fronts.
At first an accidental prime minister following Ariel Sharonâ€™s crippling stroke in early 2006, Olmert won his first election as Kadima leader a couple of months later under the banner of maintaining the path of unilateral disengagement Sharon had begun. Olmert would do in the West Bank what Sharon had done in Gaza: unilaterally extricate Israel from its adversaries, even if those adversaries were unready or unwilling to make peace.
But the shortcomings of Israelâ€™s unilateral approach became evident early on in his premiership. The 2006 summer war with Hezbollah exposed the deficiencies of Israelâ€™s unilateral withdrawal from Southern Lebanon in 2000 under Ehud Barak, and the increasing rockets attacks from Gaza and Hamasâ€™ takeover of the strip in June 2007 exposed the limitations of Sharonâ€™s pullout.
The violence shattered Olmertâ€™s plans for unilateral withdrawals in the West Bank.
Olmert adjusted his approach, but his responses to Israelâ€™s challenges were seen as inadequate. The prime minister’s approval ratings plummeted as each crisis seemed to be shadowed by one corruption scandal or another.
After Hezbollah launched a cross-border raid in July 2006, the Olmert government launched a war to recover the two soldiers taken captive in the raid and neutralize the threat to Israel from Hezbollah. But the war failed to recover the soldiers or deliver a mortal blow to the Shi’ite terrorist group in Lebanon.
Rather, Hezbollah rallied as a political force in Lebanon after the war and became a veto-wielding presence in the Lebanon Cabinet. Hezbollah also rebuilt its forces and missile arsenal to three times its prewar size, according to Israeli estimates.
In Gaza, Olmert watched as Hamas routed the more moderate Fatah faction from power and took over the strip in June 2006. Hamas kept up daily barrages of Kassam rockets into southern Israel, and the Israeli army was unable to impose quiet.
Unwilling to risk the same approach in Gaza that had failed in 2006 in Lebanon, Olmert held off on ordering a major invasion of the strip.
The need to isolate Hezbollah, Hamas and especially their backer, Iran, drove Olmert to push harder for peace. It led to the re-launching last year of peace talks with the Palestinians at Annapolis, Md., and to this year’s renewed talks with Syria under Turkish auspices, but Olmert ended his abbreviated term with those major policy initiatives unfinished.
Now it will be up to Livni, who led the Olmert administrationâ€™s talks with the Palestinians, to see the process through — assuming she succeeds in assembling a governing coalition.
Israelâ€™s next prime minister also will inherit an unsolved Iranian problem. Iranâ€™s suspected march toward nuclear weapons has been Israelâ€™s central foreign preoccupation during Olmertâ€™s term, but Olmert did not manage to rally sufficient international pressure on the Islamic Republic to bring its uranium enrichment activities to a halt.
Throughout his 2 1/2-year term, Olmert was dogged by corruption allegations that cast a shadow over nearly everything he did.
Even his decision to re-launch the indirect peace talks with Syria and sign a cease-fire deal with Hamas in Gaza in June — finally bringing quiet to southern Israel, with the exception of the occasional violation — were viewed with suspicion by some who derided the moves as ploys to ensure his political survival.
The major corruption scandal that erupted in May, in which American Jewish businessman Morris Talansky said he gave Olmert $150,000 in cash over the course of the decade and a half before Olmert became prime minister, crippled Olmertâ€™s ability to govern.
Calls for his resignation accelerated several weeks later with the revelation by police that Olmert was suspected of double-billing overseas trips to various Jewish charities.
Though he always denied any wrongdoing, Olmert acknowledged at the end of July that it had become impossible for him to continue as prime minister, and he announced that he would resign as soon as his party, Kadima, chose a new leader in September.
After Olmert handed his resignation letter to Peres on Sunday, the president offered a few solemn words.
â€œThis is not an easy decision, and I am convinced that this is a difficult evening for him,” Peres said. “I wish to take this opportunity to thank the prime minister for his service to the people and the state over the course of many years of public activities — as the mayor of Jerusalem, as a minister in the government and as the prime minister of Israel.â€
(Ron Kampeas in Washington and Marcy Oster in Israel contributed to this report.)