A founding member of Jean-Marie Le Pen’s extreme right-wing National Front was fined the equivalent of $1,700 for reprinting and circulating a notorious anti-Semitic libel, “The Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion.”
Christian Ricard, 61, was found guilty by the court of justice in the southern French town of Rodez.
The “Protocols,” a forgery purporting to expose a Jewish plot to rule the world, was written in Paris for the czarist secret police about 100 years ago. Its circulation in France is a criminal offense.
The Archive of the Jewish Telegraphic Agency includes articles published from 1923 to 2008. Archive stories reflect the journalistic standards and practices of the time they were published.