Rick Dorfman may be the human face of the latest findings in the Anti- Defamation League’s annual report of anti-Semitic incidents across the country.
Though the incident has not yet been confirmed by police as anti-Semitic, the University of Michigan junior was punched in the head by a stranger at a bowling alley outside Ann Arbor, Mich., on Monday night while wearing a pro-Israel shirt.
A key finding in the ADL’s Audit of Anti-Semitic Incidents, publicly released Wednesday, showed anti-Semitic incidents on college campuses climbed to 106 in 2002, an increase of 24 percent over the previous year.
Overall, the report showed a slight increase in activity over the previous year, with 1,559 anti-Jewish incidents reported in 2002, up from 1,432 in 2001.
Referring to the group’s June survey on anti-Semitism that showed an increase in anti-Semitic attitudes, reversing a 10-year decline, Myrna Shinbaum, ADL’s director of media relations said, “it’s not surprising to see that some of these attitudes have been acted out.”
And according to Abraham Foxman, ADL’s national director, unprecedented security at Jewish institutions in the aftermath of the Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist incidents has prevented more incidents.
“Certainly in New York,” he said, “there’s a much greater awareness than in many other cities” due to the high number of “Jews and Jewish institutions and law enforcement’s concern and awareness.”
“We are deeply concerned that despite the strides we have made over the years, anti-Semitic incidents continue to be carried out in large numbers,” Foxman said.
The audit revealed a mixed picture in states across the country, with some states showing an increase in the number of incidents and others showing a drop.
For example, a sharp rise in activity was reported in the San Francisco Bay area, while the number of incidents in New York, the state with the most anti-Semitic activity in the country, decreased by 25 percent.
State variations depend on local situations and local culture, according to Shinbaum.
The ADL audit, published since 1988, breaks down anti-Semitic incidents into two categories. One is harassment, defined as “threats and assaults directed at individuals and institutions,” which comprised 75 percent of incidents reported. The other category is vandalism, which includes cemetery desecration or anti-Semitic graffiti.
Information is compiled from official crime statistics along with reports to ADL’s 30 regional offices from victims, community leaders and law enforcement officials.
The long-term trends point to less anti-Semitism in the country as America becomes more sophisticated and better educated.
But certain world events like the current Palestinian intifada have spiked anti-Israel activity, which, in some cases, result in increased anti-Semitic activity, according to those who track such developments.
And most incidents occur where Jews are more heavily populated.
The rise of activity on campuses marked the third year of an upward trend, according to ADL. Many of the events grew out of anti-Israel demonstrations on campus.
For example, among the episodes reported were a vandalized sukkah at the University of Colorado. The incident followed a visit to the campus by Palestinian spokeswoman Hanan Ashrawi.
“Regional hostilities have often created a trigger or excuse for anti-Israel and anti-Jewish activity off the campus as well on campus and we saw a number of disturbing incidents first semester, which were largely addressed immediately by the university officials,” said Wayne Firestone, director of the Israel on Campus Coalition, a coordinating body for Jewish groups working on campus.
But it’s important to put the data in perspective, he said.
“In real numbers, it’s not a huge amount of activity,” he said, noting the report indicated 100 incidents on several thousand campuses. “Overall campuses are a safe and supportive environment for Jewish students in America.”
“On the other hand, we have to be more vigilant at times of regional tension,” in the Middle East, Firestone warned.
Among the audit’s other findings:
Reports of anti-Semitic incidents in the San Francisco Bay Area rose dramatically. In 2002, a total of 118 incidents were reported, up from 13 the previous year. Incidents directed at Jewish institutions rose from one to 39.
Overall, reports of vandalism reached a 20-year low, with 531 reported incidents in 2002. Over the past three years, vandalism incidents have declined by 27 percent. According to ADL, the decrease is a result of increased security measures, while would-be vandals may find outlets elsewhere, like the Internet.
While the ADL said that it could not quantify anti-Semitic activity on the Internet, the group stated that the Internet “continued to play a substantial role in the dissemination of anti-Semism, with hate literature being transmitted through hundreds of sites on the Web.”
The states showing the largest numbers of reported incidents in 2002 were New York, with 302, down from 408 the previous year; New Jersey, with 171, down from 192; Massachussetts, with 129, up from 126; Pennsylvania, with 101, up from 61; and Florida, with 93, down from 115.
The Archive of the Jewish Telegraphic Agency includes articles published from 1923 to 2008. Archive stories reflect the journalistic standards and practices of the time they were published.