Chicago, Ill (Aug. 29)
(By Our Chicago Correspondent)
Salmon O. Levinson, Chicago attorney, referred to as the author of the slogan, “outlawry of war,” describes his part in the early campaign against war as a national policy, in a statement to the Chicago Daily News, sent by Mr. Levinson from his summer home in Maine.
Dr. Charles Clayton Morrison, in his dedication to “The Outlawry of War,” describes Mr. Levinson as the author of the outlawry proposal and its indefatigable apostle. In the proposal which led to the Kellogg treaty, Premier Briand of France suggested a bilateral treaty “tending to outlaw war to use an American expression.” Subsequently, Mr. Levinson submitted suggestions to the French government which were “admirably reflected,” according to Dr. Morrison, in the French draft treaty. Dr. Morrison also, in an article in the London Spectator, credits Mr. Levinson and his converts with preparing the public sentiment which led to Secretary Kellogg’s insistence that the treaty be made multilateral.
“On March 9, 1918, I published my first article on ‘The Legal Status of War,’ which was, I believe, the beginning of the campaign for the outlawing of war,” Mr. Levinson declared in his statement. “On Feb. 13, 1923, Senator Borah, chairman of the Senate committee on foreign relations, offered his historic resolution to outlaw war in the Senate. This proceeding marked the entrance of outlawry into the political field and at once made Borah the leading and powerful champion of the outlawry peace movement.
“The Briand-Kellogg treaty is simple, fundamental, thoroughgoing and understandable. It provides that the nations signing the treaty will never engage in war with each other over any dispute. Nothing of the kind has ever happened before in the history of the world. The treaty is also to remain open for the signatures of other nations, as it has been signed by only fifteen nations–the charter members of peace.
“When the other nations sign, automatically the outlawry of war will become international law and by the same taken the control of the exiled institution of war, or perhaps better stated, the return of the exile, will be absolutely in the hands of the peoples themselves. No more rumors of war, no more swash-buckling threats of war–in short war can’t get started again unless the people so will it.
“Attempts have been made in certain quarters, notably scholastic and militaristic, to befuddle the minds of the people by subleties, by imaginary and almost inconceivable contingencies in the future and by interpretations ascribing bad faith to certain unnamed nations. These and other objections and obstacles to the treaty will disappear like chaff before the wind, or more aptly, will be mere brooms attempting to stem the tide of international public opinion.
“Thus the great day is about to dawn, for I am one who believes in the good faith of the civilized peoples of every country. I further believe that 95 per cent of the decent people of the world want to get rid of war and will not allow their governments ‘to make a promise to the ear and break it to the hope.’ The treaty that outlaws war will indeed make the world safe for democracy. All honor and gratitude to President Coolidge, Secretary Kellogg and Senator Borah.
“The idea of abolishing war by outlawing it, which is the gist of the treaty, is fundamentally American in its origin. Its earliest seeds are to be found in the marvelous debates of our constitutional convention of 1787, where it was necessary to consider the relationship between and among the thirteen sovereign colonies and their relationship with the sovereign federal government.
“The next great evolutionary development of the idea is to be found in the three powerful addresses on war by the brilliant statesman and orator of Massachusetts, Charles Sumner. But his resolution, offered while chairman of the foreign relations committee of the United States Senate in 1872, fell far short of outlawry. Sumner proposed that arbitration be made co-extensive with war in the settlement of controversies between nations. This is impossible, for war tolerates no rivals, recognizes no equals. When war, the protagonist takes the stage, the tritagonists take to the exits. Arbitration can only thrive and become really effective when the monster war is killed, not scotched.
“The theory of arbitration, however, continued to be exploited as the remedy for war, culminating in the Hague conference of 1899 and 1907. But the World War came and mocked the staying power of arbitration. We have our numerous arbitration treaties, as have the other nations many of which have been renewed the current year. The treaty just signed, however, is clearly distinguishable from an arbitration treaty. The present treaty commits the nations against the use of force in international controversies and thereby binds the nations not to fight even over a dispute that they will not arbitrate. It does not follow because you will not arbitrate that you must kill,” Mr. Levinson declared in his statement.
Five hundred delegates and guests will leave today on the SS. Geogia, Bay State Line, for the Seventh Annual Encampment of Jewish Veterans to be held in Boston, September 1st, 2nd and 3rd. Delegates from other states will also attend.
A petition to Congress urging more humane and liberal treatment of veterans of the late War, and the elimination from the Veterans Bureau Act of the service connection clause; humanizing the Immigration Act to enable families now separated by the wide seas to be united, will be taken up at the sessions.
An invitation will be presented to the Encampment by a delegation representing 600,000 European Veterans headed by Professor Benzion Lazar, of Vienna, for the Jewish Veterans of the Wars of the Republic to affiliate with them in an international Association.
Colonel Morris J. Mendelsohn, Commander-in-Chief for the past four years has announced his retirement, and Assemblyman Julius S. Berg of the Bronx is spoken of as his possible successor.
Establishment of a Hebrew school was among plans outlined for the coming year at a meeting of the Jewish Educational Association of Portland, Ore. recently organized to provide and supervise Jewish educational facilities for Portland children and adults.
In the absence of Mayor Houde, of Montreal, Alderman Louis Rubenstein took the chair at a banquet given at the Windsor Hotel in honor of some members of the Canadian Olympic team who arrived from Europe. Among the members was Miss Miss Fanny Rosenfeld, the Jewish girl from Toronto.
Dorothy Bloomfield, of Montreal, was awarded a scholarship from the McGill School for Social Workers. The scholarship was given by Dr. C. A. Dawson, the director of the School and will enable the winner to carry on post-graduate studies in social service work for one year.
Rabbi A. B. Rhine of Hot Springs, Ark. has been invited to deliver the invocation at the ceremonies notifying Senator Robinson of his nomination as candidate for Vice-President on the Democratic ticket, next Thursday at Hot Springs.