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Holds Jews Did Manual Labor in First 15 Centuries of Life in Diaspora

Jews supported themselves by manual labor throughout the first 15 centuries of their life in the Diaspora, it is contended by Yehezkiel Kaufman, Palestinian sociologist and scholar, in an article in the March-April issue of the Contemporary Jewish Record. Supporting his contention with historical evidence, Mr. Kaufman declares that in Poland “even in the beginning of the nineteenth century, the number of Jewish craftsmen was three times as large as that of the Jewish merchants.”