At a lab in Rehovot, the man who developed the Arrow missile is consumed with his next mission: making Israel energy independent by using cheap solar power.
“The issue of energy is the greatest danger to Israel because in 30 years there will be no energy means, no oil and no gas, and the use of coal will be prohibited,” said Dov Raviv, now the CEO of MST, an Israeli renewable energy company. “Without energy Israel cannot survive, and we must find a substitute and find it fast. That is what I am trying to do.”
Raviv’s company is working to reduce the high price of solar power, which is not yet competitive with the price of conventional energy sources like oil, by more efficiently harnessing solar energy through a method of concentrating sunlight on a matrix of single solar cells.
MST is one of dozens of alternative energy start-ups across Israel seeking solutions to the global energy crisis.
Among the innovations under development are a gear system that dramatically boosts the efficiency of wind turbines, a device that would reduce gas emissions from trucks, the generation of bio-fuels from desert plants; and various techniques to generate energy from unlikely sources, including seaweed and sewage water.
Entrepreneurs say Israeli solutions can help not only Israel but the world.
“Israel has the minds, the R&D, the technology and the entrepreneurship, but we are lagging behind in terms of actual deployment,” said David Schwartz, the chairman of MyPlanet, an Israeli consortium of companies involved in energy and security issues. “This is impeding reaching our full potential as a source of alternative energy for the world.”
Israel’s leadership in the development of alternative energy also can have security benefits. If the world is weaned from its overwhelming dependence on oil, the oil-rich autocratic regimes that surround the Jewish state, including Iran, will have less oil revenue to pay for their anti-Israel activities — whether the development of nuclear weapons or the funding of fundamentalist terrorist groups.
During a recent visit to Israel to accept the $1 million Dan David Award for promoting environmental awareness, Al Gore asked a question many Israelis have been pondering themselves: “How is it here, in the land of the sun, there is no widespread use of solar energy?”
Alternative energy is “good for the Jews,” Gore told a conference on the subject at Tel Aviv University.
Industry observers say more aggressive government policies, such as underwriting renewable energy initiatives and granting more land for power plants, are needed to bolster the development of alternative energy.
“Europe and the U.S. have made incredible strides,” Schwartz said. “Israel has not.”
Meanwhile, Israel has an energy shortage looming. Israelâ€™s supply capacity is 10,600 megawatts per day, and the country has come dangerously close to exceeding that demand on especially hot and cold days.
With limited energy reserves to accommodate for surges, and as the countryâ€™s population and energy use grows, the problem is becoming more acute.
Amnon Shpira, the head of Israelâ€™s public utility authority, told JTA that plans are under way to launch deliberate rolling brownouts this summer among certain industries at peak times to deal with the problem.
Other short-term strategies include encouraging Israelis to scale back their electricity use, limiting the use of large appliances on certain days and setting their air conditioner thermostats at higher temperatures.
The head of the Israel Energy Forum, Yael Cohen-Paran, says some relatively simple measures could significantly reduce the load on the energy grid: cash rebates for those who purchase energy-efficient air conditioning and heating units, and government encouragement of energy-saving building practices.
The long-term solution, however, may require more of a shift.
At the Tel Aviv energy conference, Israel’s infrastructure minister, Benjamin Ben-Eliezer, responded to criticism of government policy on the issue by announcing a commitment to increase the share of such energies to 15-20 percent of Israel’s total energy use by 2020, double that of previous targets.
He also pledged to adopt a plan to build one new solar station per year for the next 20 years and introduce a bill to make the Negev Desert and southern Israel a “national preference region” for renewable energies. Tax breaks and other incentives would be part of the package.
Turning Israel into a center for clean technology could build new bridges between Israel and Diaspora Jews, says Jonathan Shapira, a recent American law school graduate living in Tel Aviv who organizes monthly meetings for entrepreneurs interested in clean tech and writes a blog on the subject.
As an example, Shapira cited the business park for renewable energy firms being built in the Arava with funding from Toronto’s Jewish community.
“Rather than just making a charitable donation, people are helping create the infrastructure for economic growth and a cleaner environment in Israel,” Shapira said.
Yossi Abramowitz, the president of Arava Power, wants to install 62,500 solar panels by year’s end on the sun-drenched sands of Israelâ€™s deserts. He says his company has found investors to pay for solar power stations that would be capable of supplying up to 500 megawatts of electricity for the country — nearly 5 percent of Israel’s daily energy needs during daylight hours.
The project relies on the use of photovoltaics, or PV, a relatively expensive technology that uses a fraction of the silicon used in conventional solar panels to convert sunlight-generated photons into energy.
But for this energy to be competitive on the open market, the government needs to double its current rate of subsidy, Abramowitz says, bringing Israel more in line with the levels of subsidy in countries such as Germany and Spain.
Funding for Abramowitzâ€™s project is also conditional upon the government promising a 20-year subsidy for the solar power, known as a feed-in tariff. Israel’s public utility authority is scheduled to vote on the matter soon.
“While there is great innovation and technology in solar energy, there is zero commercial solar energy being generated today,” Abramowitz said.
Ben-Gurion University of the Negev announced a new deal last week with the Israeli start-up Zenith Solar to license solar energy technology developed by its researchers that could revolutionize the way solar power is collected and drastically reduce its price.
The new method, a form of “concentrated PV,” would use fewer of the expensive silicon solar cells to create energy. Instead it would use low-cost glass mirrors to collect sunlight and then focus it onto a relatively small amount of those solar cells to generate power.
“We can envision systems of $1 per kilowatt for the entire system, which is the kind of costs that conventional fossil fuel costs before you start figuring in the costs of fuel they have to burn,” said Professor David Faiman, the chairman of the university’s solar energy and environmental physics department and director of the National Solar Energy Center.
The Israeli founder of an algae fuel company called GreenFuel, Isaac Berzin, who was named by Time magazine as one of its Top 100 people in the world for 2008, says Israel is too small of a country to keep such technology to itself.
“Israel should be a catalyst for change,” Berzin said. “Israel is a very small market, a very small place in the middle of nowhere, but it has here what it takes in terms of technology, the know-how to change the world.”