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But the predominant element of the Jewish population in this country sprang from Eastern European environment, and American Jews being more free to discuss and to act, the struggle and conflict of opinion which began to rage in Austria and Russia and extended to a number of different lands reached a striking climax here in the agitation for the first American Jewish Congress.

Jews of recent immigrant origin even in England and France formed committees on Jewish rights in anticipation of the Peace Conference and to advance the nationalist point of view.

Despite certain contradictory manifestations the movement for the furtherance of self-rule in the community at home and for the advancement of the nationalist point of view abroad was charged with a sincerity and enthusiasm so intense as to give a genuinely dramatic character to the popular awakening of the time.

Dr. Janowsky, who is a diligent and eager student of his subject, has gone to all available original sources for his material and he is especially to be commended for the thorough manner in which he has traced the development of Jewish national opinions and aspirations at the approach of what was to be an era of complete redemption from oppression and discrimination, showing how these views were reflected by writers in several different languages.

All those interested in the subject ###a certain linguistic, cultural and communal autonomy including subsidies from public funds for Jewish schools comprise part of the substance of what was sought under the designation of national rights.

This volume is appropriately introduced by a warm note of commendation from Judge Julian W. Mack who was President of the first American Jewish Congress and also Chairman of the Committee of Jewish Delegatio#s in Paris before he was succeeded by Mr. Marshall.

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